QCan GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?

Can GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?

AExpert Answer

Many small companies and universities can and do create GMOs. The process to create GMOs is well understood and straightforward. However, few have developed commercial GMOs. The challenge is that the expense and expertise necessary for global regulatory approval can be prohibitive (published papers estimate costs to develop and secure regulatory approval for a GMO to be approximately $150 million and up). A large portion of costs is devoted to the safety and environmental studies that are submitted as part of the regulatory dossiers that must be presented to government agencies. These studies have to be completed under very tight protocols to meet established quality standards expected by government agencies around the world. Most of these studies are conducted by contract research organizations that have a proven and accepted history of high-quality laboratory practice. Because of this high cost, many smaller companies form collaborations to research and develop new GMOs.

Posted on April 18, 2018
GMO Answers provides the facts that answer questions related to biotechnology, GM crops and agriculture. We work to ensure that the content and answers provided by experts and companies are accurate and therefore do not present opinions about GMOs, simply facts. GMO Answers is a community focused on constructive discussion about GMOs in order to have open conversations about agriculture and GMOs. This website is funded by the Council for Biotechnology Information. The Council... Read More
Posted on April 20, 2018
When glyphosate is applied to plants (e.g., crops or weeds) a certain percentage is absorbed and transported throughout the plant. The amount absorbed is variable depending on the application rate and the type of plant. Very little of the absorbed glyphosate is degraded by the plant and cannot be removed. Its persistence in plants is also variable. Federal regulatory agencies have established allowable limits for glyphosate residues in many different crops to protect human and animal health.... Read More
Answer:
Posted on January 31, 2018
Thank you for your question. There are various aspects of your question. I assume your question refers to the use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes by scientists to intentionally transfer genes from the bacterium to plants. Infection and DNA transfer from this bacterium occurs in nature all the time to cause disease. Such transformed plants are not classified as GMOs since transfer occurred naturally. If this is done by scientists then it would be classified as a GMO. Rules and... Read More
Answer: