QCan GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?

Can GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?

AExpert Answer

Many small companies and universities can and do create GMOs. The process to create GMOs is well understood and straightforward. However, few have developed commercial GMOs. The challenge is that the expense and expertise necessary for global regulatory approval can be prohibitive (published papers estimate costs to develop and secure regulatory approval for a GMO to be approximately $150 million and up). A large portion of costs is devoted to the safety and environmental studies that are submitted as part of the regulatory dossiers that must be presented to government agencies. These studies have to be completed under very tight protocols to meet established quality standards expected by government agencies around the world. Most of these studies are conducted by contract research organizations that have a proven and accepted history of high-quality laboratory practice. Because of this high cost, many smaller companies form collaborations to research and develop new GMOs.

Posted on December 7, 2017
The term “GMO” typically refers to crops or animals that, through genetic engineering, have had a gene (or a few genes) from a different species inserted into their genome. This is by design to improve a crop or animal with genetic engineering. In fact, me and my colleagues recently published a paper on this very topic that addresses this very topic and gives more details on the plant selection practices used for GE crops.   However, you pick up on something very... Read More
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Posted on December 7, 2017
Nearly all foods today have been genetically modified or altered in some way over thousands of years through selective breeding. However, there are only 10 commercially available GMO crops in the U.S: soybeans, corn (field and sweet), canola, cotton, alfalfa, sugar beets, summer squash, papaya, potatoes and apples.   Below is a table outlining what year the nine crops became commercially available:   Squash 1995 Cotton 1996... Read More
Posted on November 28, 2017
There are currently no breeding techniques used to create genetic variations of hair textures. If a person wishes to change their hair texture in any way, they are currently limited to the available hair care products sold for those purposes.   However, new gene editing techniques are continued to be developed for different beneficial purposes and what you are referring to is the possibility of editing genes in humans. Some of the areas to apply gene editing, particularly in humans, are... Read More
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