Many small companies and universities can and do create GMOs. The process to create GMOs is well understood and straightforward. However, few have developed commercial GMOs. The challenge is that the expense and expertise necessary for global regulatory approval can be prohibitive (published papers estimate costs to develop and secure regulatory approval for a GMO to be approximately $150 million and up). A large portion of costs is devoted to the safety and environmental studies that are submitted as part of the regulatory dossiers that must be presented to government agencies. These studies have to be completed under very tight protocols to meet established quality standards expected by government agencies around the world. Most of these studies are conducted by contract research organizations that have a proven and accepted history of high-quality laboratory practice. Because of this high cost, many smaller companies form collaborations to research and develop new GMOs.
QCan GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?
Question submitted By: jamirault8Can GMOs only be made by large companies with a lot of money and equipment?
Posted on October 26, 2017
Response from: Andy Newhouse , P.h.D. Student • on November 15, 2017
An "LMO" (Living Modified Organism) is basically a GMO that is alive and capable of passing on its genes to a subsequent generation. In most situations, the terms LMO and GMO are essentially synonymous, but neither term is really used by most biotechnologists! More on that below. The term LMO was used in the Cartegena Protocol (basically a big document that came out of an international convention several years ago, more detailed info here.) The reason we as... Read More
Posted on October 6, 2017
Response from: Professor Drew Kershen, Earl Sneed Centennial Professor of Law (Emeritus), University of Oklahoma, College of Law • on November 15, 2017
Biotechnology as a discipline focuses on understanding molecular biology and has applications in medicine/health, environmental science, industrial products and agriculture. Biotechnology is widely used in all these sectors. I will focus my answer on agricultural biotechnology. In many countries (e.g., Brazil, Canada, India, and the United States) a significant amount of agricultural research, especially basic research in molecular biology, is conducted by governmental agricultural... Read More
How can we trust a website sponsored by the people involved in creating GMO products like Monsanto and Bauer?
Posted on October 18, 2017
Response from: Community Manager, Moderator for GMOAnswers.com • on November 9, 2017
GMO Answers provides the facts that answer questions related to biotechnology, GM crops and agriculture. We work to ensure that the content and answers provided by experts and companies are accurate and therefore do not present opinions about GMOs, simply facts. GMO Answers is a community focused on constructive discussion about GMOs in order to have open conversations about agriculture and GMOs. This website is funded by the Council for Biotechnology Information. The... Read More