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Graham Brookes

Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK

Expert Bio

Graham Brookes is an agricultural economist with PG Economics Ltd, UK, which specialises in examining the economic and environmental impact of new technology use in agriculture.  Graham has authored 15 papers, published in peer reviewed scientific and economic journals on the economic and environmental impact of GM crops around the world.  See for example: Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015) Environmental impacts of GM crop use 1996-2013: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.  GM Crops 6:2, p103-133, and Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015)  Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2014, GM Crops 6: 1, p13-46.  Brookes G and Barfoot P (2016) Global economic benefits of GM crops reach $150 billion

Available on open access at www.landesbioscience.com

Studies, Articles and Answers

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Showing 4 out of 12 results

Answer

Q: Why are genetically modified crops increasing the use of herbicides and pesticides? I thought the claim was that they would decrease use?

Answered By Graham Brookes - Aug 22, 2013

A: This is a complex subject, and therefore, providing an answer requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays, after many years of using GM technology, and lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes.  Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used.  This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant crops, which are specifically designed to make a crop resistant to a specific pest or pests and can be [...]

GMO Basics Health & Safety Crop protectants

Answer

Q: Ive seen a lot of info about the use of chemicals as it relates to GMOs. And both sides of the issue have graphs and charts showing general trends. But the total usage of chemicals may change with things like changes in tillage. i.e. if a lot of acrea

Answered By Graham Brookes - Feb 26, 2014

A:  This is a complex subject, and providing an answer therefore requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays after many years of using GM technology and, lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes. Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used. This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant crops, which are specifically designed to make a crop resistant to a specific pest or pests and can be found i [...]

Health & Safety How GMOs Are Made Crop protectants

Answer

Q: Are GMOs increasing the price of food? -- Submitted as part of GMO Answers Top Consumer Questions Survey --

Answered By Graham Brookes - Apr 08, 2014

A: The simple answer to this question is no. Actually, GMOs have contributed to reducing the real cost of food. The main reason why biotech (GM) crops have contributed to reducing the cost of food stems from the nature of the technology adopted. The technology adopted to date has largely been productivity-enhancing and cost-reducing technology. This means additional global production has arisen from use of the technology, equal to an extra 122 million tonnes of soybeans, 237 million tonnes of corn, 18 million tonnes of cotton lint and 6.6 million tonnes of canola in the period 1996–2012. At [...]

GMOs in Groceries How GMOs Are Made Crop protectants

Answer

Q: I have seen estimates of the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions associated with GMO usage due to reduced tillage. How are these estimates calculated? Are the reductions in greenhouse emissions expected to increase with further GMO usage and new modifi

Answered By Graham Brookes - Nov 06, 2014

A: The most current estimates of reductions in the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from GM crops have been made by G. Brookes and P. Barfoot (2014), and the information below is taken from this work. GM crops contribute to reducing GHG emissions via two principal sources: GM crops contribute to a reduction in fuel use from less frequent herbicide or insecticide applications and a reduction in the energy use in soil cultivation. For example, Lazarus (2012) estimated that one pesticide spray application uses 0.84 liters of fuel, which is equivalent to 2.24 kg/ha of carbon dioxide emi [...]

Environment GMOs Globally