Graham Brookes

Independent Expert

Graham Brookes

Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK

Graham Brookes is an agricultural economist with PG Economics Ltd, UK, which specialises in examining the economic and environmental impact of new technology use in agriculture.  Graham has authored 15 papers, published in peer reviewed scientific and economic journals on the economic and environmental impact of GM crops around the world.  See for example: Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015) Environmental impacts of GM crop use 1996-2013: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.  GM Crops 6:2, p103-133, and Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015)  Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2014, GM Crops 6: 1, p13-46.  Brookes G and Barfoot P (2016) Global economic benefits of GM crops reach $150 billion

Available on open access at www.landesbioscience.com

From this Expert

Posted on February 9, 2017
Response from Graham Brookes, Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK • July 31, 2017
In order the answer this question, it is important to first be clear about what a GMO is and secondly to discuss a number of issues relating to yields.   What is a GMO? It is assumed that this question refers to genetically modified crops. GM crop technology has been widely used since the mid-1990s and in 2015 were planted on about 175 million hectares worldwide.   The main GMO traits convey:            Tolerance to specific... Read More
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Posted on July 31, 2017
Response from Graham Brookes, Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK • July 31, 2017
In order the answer this question, it is important to first be clear about what a GMO is and secondly to discuss the complex issues relating to herbicide use.   What is a GMO? It is assumed that this question refers to genetically modified crops. GM crop technology has been widely used since the mid-1990s and in 2015 were planted on about 175 million hectares worldwide.   The main GMO traits convey:            Tolerance to... Read More
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Posted on February 18, 2016
Response from Graham Brookes, Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK • April 4, 2016
On the assumption that this question is asking if GMO crops keep food affordable, the answer is yes, they do contribute to keeping food affordable. This arises from the cost reducing and yield enhancing impacts of using GM technology in crops like corn, soybeans, cotton and canola over the last 20 years. As a result of yield gains, between 1996 and 2013, crop biotechnology has been responsible for additional global production of 138 million tonnes of soybeans and 274 million tonnes of... Read More
Posted on July 14, 2014
Response from Graham Brookes, Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK • November 6, 2014
The most current estimates of reductions in the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from GM crops have been made by G. Brookes and P. Barfoot (2014), and the information below is taken from this work. GM crops contribute to reducing GHG emissions via two principal sources: GM crops contribute to a reduction in fuel use from less frequent herbicide or insecticide applications and a reduction in the energy use in soil cultivation. For example, Lazarus (2012) estimated that one... Read More
Posted on April 8, 2014
Response from Graham Brookes, Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK • April 8, 2014
The simple answer to this question is no. Actually, GMOs have contributed to reducing the real cost of food. The main reason why biotech (GM) crops have contributed to reducing the cost of food stems from the nature of the technology adopted. The technology adopted to date has largely been productivity-enhancing and cost-reducing technology. This means additional global production has arisen from use of the technology, equal to an extra 122 million tonnes of soybeans, 237 million tonnes... Read More

STUDY: New report highlights 20 years of economic and environmental benefits from using biotech/GM crops

By Graham Brookes (Independent Expert) on June 5, 2017

A new report released today by PG Economics has found that over the last 20 years, crop biotechnology has significantly reduced agriculture’s environmental impact and stimulated economic growth in the 26 countries where the technology is used. The innovative agricultural technology has contributed to preserving the earth’s natural resources while allowing farmers to grow more, high quality crops. It has also helped alleviate poverty for 16.5 million, mostly smallholder farmers, in developing countries.