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Graham Brookes

Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK

Expert Bio

Graham Brookes is an agricultural economist with PG Economics Ltd, UK, which specialises in examining the economic and environmental impact of new technology use in agriculture.  Graham has authored 15 papers, published in peer reviewed scientific and economic journals on the economic and environmental impact of GM crops around the world.  See for example: Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015) Environmental impacts of GM crop use 1996-2013: impacts on pesticide use and carbon emissions.  GM Crops 6:2, p103-133, and Brookes G and Barfoot P (2015)  Global income and production impacts of using GM crop technology 1996-2014, GM Crops 6: 1, p13-46.  Brookes G and Barfoot P (2016) Global economic benefits of GM crops reach $150 billion

Available on open access at www.landesbioscience.com

Studies, Articles and Answers

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Showing 8 out of 8 results

Question

Q: Why are genetically modified crops increasing the use of herbicides and pesticides? I thought the claim was that they would decrease use?

Answered By Graham Brookes - Aug 22, 2013

A: This is a complex subject, and therefore, providing an answer requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays, after many years of using GM technology, and lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes.  Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used.  This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant crops, which are specifically designed to make a crop resistant to a specific pest or pests and can be [...]

Environment Crop protectants

Question

Q: Ive seen a lot of info about the use of chemicals as it relates to GMOs. And both sides of the issue have graphs and charts showing general trends. But the total usage of chemicals may change with things like changes in tillage. i.e. if a lot of acrea

Answered By Graham Brookes - Feb 26, 2014

A:  This is a complex subject, and providing an answer therefore requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays after many years of using GM technology and, lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes. Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used. This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant crops, which are specifically designed to make a crop resistant to a specific pest or pests and can be found i [...]

Environment Crop protectants

Question

Q: Are GMOs increasing the price of food? -- Submitted as part of GMO Answers Top Consumer Questions Survey --

Answered By Graham Brookes - Apr 08, 2014

A: The simple answer to this question is no. Actually, GMOs have contributed to reducing the real cost of food. The main reason why biotech (GM) crops have contributed to reducing the cost of food stems from the nature of the technology adopted. The technology adopted to date has largely been productivity-enhancing and cost-reducing technology. This means additional global production has arisen from use of the technology, equal to an extra 122 million tonnes of soybeans, 237 million tonnes of corn, 18 million tonnes of cotton lint and 6.6 million tonnes of canola in the period 1996–2012. At [...]

Environment Health & Safety

Question

Q: I have seen estimates of the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions associated with GMO usage due to reduced tillage. How are these estimates calculated? Are the reductions in greenhouse emissions expected to increase with further GMO usage and new modifi

Answered By Graham Brookes - Nov 06, 2014

A: The most current estimates of reductions in the level of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from GM crops have been made by G. Brookes and P. Barfoot (2014), and the information below is taken from this work. GM crops contribute to reducing GHG emissions via two principal sources: GM crops contribute to a reduction in fuel use from less frequent herbicide or insecticide applications and a reduction in the energy use in soil cultivation. For example, Lazarus (2012) estimated that one pesticide spray application uses 0.84 liters of fuel, which is equivalent to 2.24 kg/ha of carbon dioxide emi [...]

Environment Crop protectants

Question

Q: do they keep food affordable

Answered By Graham Brookes - Apr 04, 2016

A: On the assumption that this question is asking if GMO crops keep food affordable, the answer is yes, they do contribute to keeping food affordable. This arises from the cost reducing and yield enhancing impacts of using GM technology in crops like corn, soybeans, cotton and canola over the last 20 years. As a result of yield gains, between 1996 and 2013, crop biotechnology has been responsible for additional global production of 138 million tonnes of soybeans and 274 million tonnes of corn. The technology has also contributed an extra 21.7 million tonnes of cotton lint and 8 million tonn [...]


Question

Q: Do GMOs increase herbicide use?

Answered By Graham Brookes - Jul 31, 2017

A: In order the answer this question, it is important to first be clear about what a GMO is and secondly to discuss the complex issues relating to herbicide use.   What is a GMO? It is assumed that this question refers to genetically modified crops. GM crop technology has been widely used since the mid-1990s and in 2015 were planted on about 175 million hectares worldwide.   The main GMO traits convey:            Tolerance to specific herbicides (notably to glyphosate) in maize, cotton, canola (spring oilseed rape), soybean, suga [...]

Environment Crop protectants

Question

Q: Do GMOs decrease yields?

Answered By Graham Brookes - Jul 31, 2017

A: In order the answer this question, it is important to first be clear about what a GMO is and secondly to discuss a number of issues relating to yields.   What is a GMO? It is assumed that this question refers to genetically modified crops. GM crop technology has been widely used since the mid-1990s and in 2015 were planted on about 175 million hectares worldwide.   The main GMO traits convey:            Tolerance to specific herbicides (notably to glyphosate) in maize, cotton, canola (spring oilseed rape), soybean, sugar beet [...]

GMOs & Farmers

Question

Q: How much herbicidepesticide is used for a GMO farm in comparison to a normal one?

Answered By Graham Brookes - Apr 06, 2018

A: In order to answer this question, it is important to first be clear about what a GMO/GMO farm is and secondly to discuss the complex issues relating to herbicide and pesticide use. What is a GMO/GMO farm? It is assumed that this question refers to genetically modified crops. GM crop technology has been widely used since the mid-1990s and in 2016 were planted on about 178 million hectares worldwide. The main GMO traits convey: Tolerance to specific herbicides (notably to glyphosate) in maize, cotton, canola (spring oilseed rape), soybean, sugar beet and alfalfa.  This GM herbicide tolerant ( [...]

GMO Basics