QPlease elaborate on the discrepancies of the distribution of genetically modified medicines to under developed countries.

Please elaborate on the discrepancies of the distribution of genetically modified medicines to under developed countries.

AExpert Answer

A gene with a desirable trait can be moved from one organism to another organism as a means to change it. The traditional way is through selective breeding, which is slow, time consuming, inefficient, and transfers more than one gene, so other unexpected and unwanted traits can cause problems. But genes also can be moved in a laboratory, resulting in what has been called a genetically modified (“transgenic”) organism (GMO). GM technology moves only one gene, eliminating other, unwanted traits being produced. Think of overcoming antibiotic resistance in bacteria or blocking emerging new infections, such as Ebola. The method has been used for over 40 years successfully, cheaply and safely. There are no credible studies showing harm to humans from use of GM technology in crops or pharmaceuticals.

 

Medical scientists have used transgenic methods to produce insulin and thyroid medications, vaccines against hepatitis, cholera, malaria, cancer therapies, treatments for anemia and stroke. Many new medications were designed using GM techniques, including Remicaid, Epo, Avastin and Neulasta.

 

This year for the first time, scientists successfully edited the genes of human embryos to repair a genetic mutation. The editing technique, called CRISPR, is so simple and efficient it was named scientific breakthrough of the year in 2015. Not only can gene editing prevent a fetus from developing a serious genetic disease, such as Huntington’s disease, thalassemia, sickle cell disease, or Tay-Sachs, but also it can eliminate the transfer of the abnormal gene to subsequent generations. Strict guidelines have limited the use of this powerful tool to only severe, life-threatening gene mutations. It is not for changing the cosmetics of the baby. 

 

GM technology and the new CRISPR tool promises to make drugs easier, cheaper and safer to bring to market. But access to the newest, most powerful drugs within developing countries is complex. There are four pillars of drug “access:” rational selection of the most essential drugs, negotiating affordable prices, establishing sustainable financing, and developing a reliable supply network within the local health care system. Most of the essential medications are now off patent. Despite this, half the world’s population is too poor to afford them, especially when purchasing them through non-government subsidized sources.

 

HIV treatment with anti-retroviral therapy has been the exception. Access has been a huge problem worldwide. These drugs are expensive. The drugs control the disease but do not cure it, meaning that individuals must take them for life. There are side effects and risks. CRISPR may change all that. The tool is so simple that its use is not limited to researchers in a few major pharmaceutical companies. The first clinical trials using the patient’s own gene-edited T cells was successful in boosting immune resistance to HIV. A vaccine now seems feasible in the near future. GM is a powerful 21st century scientific tool that will revolutionize health care for all of us, particularly those in developing countries.

 

Posted on November 17, 2017
When people refer to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), they are referring to precision plant breeding using genetic engineering. It allows plant breeders to take a desirable trait (like resistance to drought, insects, weeds, and disease) from one plant or organism and transfer it to the plant they want to improve, as well as make a change to an existing trait in a plant they are developing. You may have also heard of agricultural biotechnology or biotech seeds.... Read More
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Posted on September 4, 2017
The principle reason that GM products such as Arctic apples are not available in Germany or any other country of the European Union is due to the GMO labelling legislation in place there. Presently, any food product that contains GM ingredients of greater than 0.9 percent has to be labelled as being a GM food product. The environmental non-governmental organizations have led extensive public relation campaigns to convince European consumers that GM labels are to be viewed as a warning, or... Read More
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Posted on November 6, 2017
This question has previously been answered by a variety experts.   Jim Gaffney, PhD, Strategy Lead of Biotech Affairs and Regulatory at DuPont Pioneer says this:   “In short, yes, genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool with great potential for helping feed the growing population. The challenge is not just one of increased productivity though, but also of improving prosperity for millions of smallholder farmers and environmental stewardship and sustainability. That... Read More
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