QI inquired about genetic engineering of fodder crops and received this answer: "Molecular approaches to improvement of guinea grass, an important tropical and subtropical forage for cattle, have included genetic sequencing and marker-assisted breeding. To

I inquired about genetic engineering of fodder crops and received this answer: "Molecular approaches to improvement of guinea grass, an important tropical and subtropical forage for cattle, have included genetic sequencing and marker-assisted breeding. To our knowledge, genetic engineering has not yet been undertaken." Please define "genetic sequencing and marker-assisted breeding". How do these techniques differ from genetic engineering? Thanks

AExpert Answer

The genes that make up the blue print for an organism are carried on its DNA, which consists of a string with information coded much like letters and words. Genes or sets of genes determine many of the physical and biochemical characteristics of the organism – for example a gene for growth rate, or a set of genes that make a plant drought tolerant. Genetic sequencing is the determination of the precise DNA sequences that make up the genes of an organism (the Human Genome Project is the most famous example of this).  Using this information, researchers can identify certain DNA elements that are associated with particular plant characteristics of interest (“molecular markers”). Breeders can then use these markers to quickly identify individual plants that have the desired characteristics without having to actually grow the plants in the field.  Breeders choose individual plants for breeding that have the markers for the characteristics they need and quickly set aside the plants that do not. This is called “marker assisted selection” or “marker assisted breeding”. This technique allows breeders to cross-breed individual plants to efficiently and reliably add desired characteristics to particular crop varieties. By contrast, genetic engineering involves directly changing the DNA sequences to alter or add to the plants’ genes and create new characteristics.

Posted on September 5, 2017
While there might be some institutions with the capability to make these transgenic watermelon and coconut plants for you, that does not mean that you would be able to actually plant them out. First, the institution would need to have a Biological Use Authorization to work with recombinant DNA to make the vectors to transfer the genes. Then they would need to be able to do the tissue culture required to transfer the genes and regenerate whole plants again, which can sometimes be difficult.... Read More
Posted on June 28, 2017
The short answer is no, neither MSG or animal extraction are from GMOs, nor is MSG, animal extraction, or animal products/animal DNA in GMOs.   When people refer to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), they are referring to precision plant breeding using genetic engineering (also called GE). It allows plant breeders to take a desirable trait (like resistance to drought, insects, weeds, and disease) from one plant or organism and transfer it to the plant... Read More
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Posted on June 28, 2017
No. MSG, monosodium glutamate, is a chemical additive, certainly not a GMO.
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