Line 4Line 4 Copyic/close/grey600play_circle_outline - material

Steven L. Levine, Ph.D.

Global Lead- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Monsanto Company

Expert Bio

I have worked in the field of ecotoxicology for over 25 years. I grew up along the shores of Lake Michigan and developed a passion for studying aquatic animals, which led me to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aquatic toxicology. After a NIH Post-Doctoral Fellowship in toxicology at Pennsylvania State University I joined Monsanto. At Monsanto I have worked as an ecotoxicologist supporting the chemical and biotech crop protection portfolios within the Regulatory Sciences

Studies, Articles and Answers

Filter by

Showing 1 out of 1 results


Q: Does exposing bees to glyphosate alter the bee gut microbiota and increase susceptibility to infection by opportunistic pathogens?A study by Erick V. S. Motta, Kasie Raymann, and Nancy A. Moran demonstrated that the relative and absolute abundances of dom

Answered By Steven L. Levine, Ph.D. - Oct 30, 2018

A: Motta et al. (2018) is a complicated study, that tests a hypothesis that inhibition of EPSPS in the gut microbiome can result in increased susceptibility to opportunistic pathogens, but some of the experimental conditions make interpretation equivocal. Results from laboratory studies that assess toxicity to individual honey bees are not automatically indicative of effects to honey bee colonies. The reason for this is that honeybees often respond differently when they are exposed as part of a colony. To address this difference, EPA’s scheme for testing effects to honey bee’s progresses from hig [...]