Community Manager


Community Manager

Moderator for

The GMO Answers Community Manager is the website moderator who helps answer your questions by linking to resources on GMO Answers and other online content which addresses GMOs and biotechnology. The Community Manager also ensures the dialogue among the community members remains constructive and respective of all viewpoints. If you have questions about how the community is managed, please visit our house rules,

From this Expert

Posted on: July 20, 2018
Response from Community Manager, Moderator for • August 21, 2018
There is currently no GMO honey commercially available today. However, nearly all foods today have been genetically modified or altered in some way over thousands of years through selective breeding. Although, there are only 10 commercially available GMO crops in the U.S: soybeans, corn (field and sweet), canola, cotton, alfalfa, sugar beets, summer squash, papaya, potatoes and apples. These 10 are the only GMO crops that are commercially available in the U.S., but it is also important to note... Read More
Posted on: July 4, 2018
Response from Community Manager, Moderator for • July 30, 2018
Thank you for your questions, we will address each question separately below. How is a transgenic organism or GMO created? When people refer to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), they are referring to precision plant breeding using genetic engineering. It allows plant breeders to take a desirable trait (like resistance to drought, insects, weeds, and disease) from one plant or organism and transfer it to the plant they want to improve, as well as make... Read More
Posted on: May 28, 2018
Response from Community Manager, Moderator for • June 28, 2018
We have answered similar questions about GMOs being “good” or “bad.” This response addresses the positives and benefits that GMOs offer. A snippet is included below: “GMOs are considered an important tool in addressing complex issues around the globe. From environmental sustainability to nutritional benefits, we’ve outlined many of the important ways GMOs can provided benefits to farmers, consumers and the environment in this response. Additionally,... Read More
Posted on: May 22, 2018
Response from Community Manager, Moderator for • June 25, 2018
Connie Diekman, Med, RD, D, FADA, explains the effects of GMOs on the human body in a response to a similar question. Read the full response. “First, the Food and Drug Administration has set forth guidelines related to the use of GMOs, and in those documents they reference the science that indicates food developed through biotechnology are digested in the same manner as other foods and therefore provide the same nutrition, or in some cases more nutrition (if the goal of... Read More
Posted on: May 20, 2018
Response from Community Manager, Moderator for • June 25, 2018
Thank you for your question and interest, it is great you are a supporter of sciences. The traditional home gardening seed outlets do not sell/market/offer GMO crop seeds, one would have to work through a grower seed dealer/distributor, which would require appropriate licensing and a contract agreement. So anyone can purchase GM seed varieties – it simply requires going through a farm supply company, getting the required licensing and signing a contract. But typical gardener retail... Read More


By Community Manager (CBI) on August 20, 2018

The scale of the problem is staggering. Each year, 1.6 billion tons of food worth about $1.2 trillion are lost or go to waste—one-third of the total amount of food produced globally.1 To put the figure in perspective, that is ten times the mass of the island of Manhattan. And the problem is only growing: BCG estimates that by 2030 annual food loss and waste will hit 2.1 billion tons worth $1.5 trillion. This massive misuse of resources is emerging as a critical global issue, with the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals setting a target of halving food loss and waste by 2030. The urgency reflects the fact that the food waste disaster has far-reaching implications. According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Resources Institute, it accounts for 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. And it is difficult to imagine solving the hunger problem—some 870 million people around the world are undernourished—when so much of the global food supply is lost between the farm and the table.

STUDY: Community composition and functions of endophytic bacteria of Bt maize

By Community Manager (CBI) on August 6, 2018

We investigated the potential effects of genetic modification of Bt maize on the community composition and functions of bacterial endophytes associated with transgenic maize (Bt MON 810) in comparison with its isogenic parental line at two developmental stages. Bacterial isolates were obtained from transgenic (Bt) and non-transgenic (non-Bt) maize at 50- and 90-day-old developmental stages. Isolated bacterial endophytes were screened for their capabilities in phosphate solubilisation, nitrogen fixation, production of antifungal metabolites and production of indole acetic acid. After molecular identification, 60 isolates were obtained and clustered into 19 and 18 operational taxonomic units from 50- and 90-day-old maize, respectively. The isolates belonged to the genera Bacillus, Pantoea, Serratia, Yersinia, Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas. Functional attributes and diversity of the isolated endophytes at both developmental stages were not significantly different for both maize varieties. However, functional attributes were significantly affected by plant growth stage. Isolates from younger plants were more efficient producers of indole acetic acid, but exhibited little or no capabilities for nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilisation and antifungal activity in both maize genotypes. Based on these outcomes, Bt modification in maize does not seem to affect the community composition or functional attributes of bacterial endophytes.

STUDY: An Overview of Attitudes Toward Genetically Engineered Food

By Community Manager (CBI) on August 1, 2018

Genetically engineered food has had its DNA, RNA, or proteins manipulated by intentional human intervention. We provide an overview of the importance and regulation of genetically engineered food and lay attitudes toward it. We first discuss the pronaturalness context in the United States and Europe that preceded the appearance of genetically engineered food. We then review the definition, prevalence, and regulation of this type of food. Genetically engineered food is widespread in some countries, but there is great controversy worldwide among individuals, governments, and other institutions about the advisability of growing and consuming it. In general, life scientists have a much more positive view of genetically engineered food than laypeople. We examine the bases of lay opposition to genetically engineered food and the evidence for how attitudes change. Laypeople tend to see genetically engineered food as dangerous and offering few benefits. We suggest that much of the lay opposition is morally based. One possibility is that, in some contexts, people view nature and naturalness as sacred and genetically engineered food as a violation of naturalness. We also suggest that for many people these perceptions of naturalness and attitudes toward genetically engineered food follow the sympathetic magical law of contagion, in which even minimal contact between a natural food and an unnatural entity, either a scientist or a piece of foreign DNA, pollutes or contaminates the natural entity and renders it unacceptable or even immoral to consume.

STUDY: Consumer Trends in the Food and Beverage Industry

By Community Manager (CBI) on May 18, 2018

According to a survey of more than 2,200 American adults by research firm Morning Consult for consumer trends in the beverage and food market, Americans find food and drinks more appealing if they are labeled “fresh” or “farm fresh”. The words “diet” and “vegan” are shopping turn-offs, with around a third of consumers saying those labels make food items less appealing. The survey also found that American consumers have not been greatly impacted by relentless campaigns against genetically modified foods, which have been shown to be perfectly safe time and time again.

STUDY: 2018 Food and Health Survey

By Community Manager (CBI) on May 16, 2018

The International Food Information Council (IFIC) Foundation’s 2018 Food and Health Survey marks the 13th time the IFIC Foundation has surveyed American consumers to understand their perceptions, beliefs and behaviors around food and food purchasing decisions. This year, the survey continues an examination of issues related to health and diet, food components, food production, and food safety. It also explores new topics, such as food insecurity, diets and eating patterns, and how consumers’ diets compare to dietary guidelines and expert recommendations.

STUDY: An overview of the last 10 years of genetically engineered crop safety research

By Community Manager (CBI) on April 5, 2018

The technology to produce genetically engineered (GE) plants is celebrating its 30th anniversary and one of the major achievements has been the development of GE crops. The safety of GE crops is crucial for their adoption and has been the object of intense research work often ignored in the public debate. We have reviewed the scientific literature on GE crop safety during the last 10 years, built a classified and manageable list of scientific papers, and analyzed the distribution and composition of the published literature

STUDY: Impacts of GMO corn: A meta analysis

By Community Manager (CBI) on February 20, 2018

Despite the extensive cultivation of genetically engineered (GE) maize and considerable number of scientific reports on its agro-environmental impact, the risks and benefits of GE maize are still being debated and concerns about safety remain. This meta-analysis aimed at increasing knowledge on agronomic, environmental and toxicological traits of GE maize by analyzing the peer-reviewed literature (from 1996 to 2016) on yield, grain quality, non-target organisms (NTOs), target organisms (TOs) and soil biomass decomposition.