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Posted On: Saturday, 10/19/2013 4:14 pm
A: Thank you for your message; there are important topics in your question that I´ll address individually.   First, I want to share with you important information about the reproductive biology of maize.  Maize is a natural cross-pollinated crop and it is expected to outcross with sexually compatible plants in its proximity assuming certain environmental conditions are met (e.g. wind, temperature and relative humidity). Gene flow among different maize materials is neither a... Continue Reading
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Posted On: Tuesday, 1/20/2015 2:40 pm
A: I have been fascinated by this issue since my days in undergraduate statistical genetics. I assume you want to know about what occurs ‘in the wild’ and the most well-known example is viruses moving DNA to their host cells. But you are probably interested in non-viral transfer.   There are specialized situations in which genetic exchange can, and have, occurred among higher organisms (plants); primarily related to close symbiotic relationships. Genomic studies have found a... Continue Reading
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Posted On: Thursday, 12/18/2014 4:32 am
A: It seems you have several concerns. I’ll answer them individually.   When will Monsanto’s patent of seeds expire? Monsanto currently has patents for a variety of technologies, including plants, chemicals, processes and machines. Patents generally last either 17 years from issuance (if filed before 1995) or 20 years from filing (if filed after 1995). Exact expiration of any technology depends on the date of filing.   Why is it a good idea to destroy the... Continue Reading
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Posted On: Tuesday, 8/05/2014 7:16 pm
A: Each year, Monsanto provides Academic Research Licenses (ARL) to more than 90 academic institutions in the United States alone. The research associated with these ARLs is not typically funded and does not require our approval for the researcher to publish their work. As a result, our products have been mentioned in hundreds of extension and peer-reviewed publications through the years without our monitoring. And, due to the sheer volume of these ARLs, it is neither practical nor possible for... Continue Reading
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Posted On: Thursday, 2/06/2014 6:46 pm
A: In general, the benefits of genetically modified (GM) animals are very similar to those cited for GM plants, which includes inserting genes to produce a GM animal in a more efficient way or enhance the function of the animal.   For the advantages and the process in plants, please refer to this basic introduction.   Genetic modifications in animals have been researched since the early 1990s.  FDA is currently reviewing the first GM animal product.  No GM food animal or... Continue Reading