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Independent Expert

Graham Brookes

Agricultural Economist, PG Economics Ltd, UK

Graham Brookes is an agricultural economist with PG Economics Ltd, UK, which specialises in examining the economic and environmental impact of new technology use in agriculture.  Graham has authored 15 papers, published in peer reviewed scientific and economic journals on the economic and environmental impact of GM crops around the world.  See for example, ‘Key environmental impacts of global GM crop use: 1996-2011’, GM Crops and Food, Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain, 4:2, 109-119.  Available on open access at www.landesbioscience.com

From this Expert

Posted On: Tuesday, 4/08/2014 12:33 pm
A: The simple answer to this question is no. Actually, GMOs have contributed to reducing the real cost of food. The main reason why biotech (GM) crops have contributed to reducing the cost of food stems from the nature of the technology adopted. The technology adopted to date has largely been productivity-enhancing and cost-reducing technology. This means additional global production has arisen from use of the technology, equal to an extra 122 million tonnes of soybeans, 237 million tonnes... Continue Reading
Posted On: Tuesday, 1/14/2014 8:56 pm
A:  This is a complex subject, and providing an answer therefore requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays after many years of using GM technology and, lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes. Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used. This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant crops,... Continue Reading
Posted On: Wednesday, 7/31/2013 9:18 pm
A: This is a complex subject, and therefore, providing an answer requires discussion of a number of factors, such as the nature of the GM technology, what it is replacing, what might be reasonably used as an alternative nowadays, after many years of using GM technology, and lastly, the environmental impact associated with the pesticide-use changes.  Firstly, there is the context and type of GM crop technology being used.  This currently falls into two main types: insect-resistant... Continue Reading

What are the real economic and environmental impacts of GM crop use?

By Graham Brookes (Independent Expert) on Monday, May 19, 2014 - 13:14

This comprehensive paper from PG Economics discusses the global economic and environmental impact of GM crops, and provides insight as to why farmers have chosen to adopt this technology and continue to use it.
  • Business Practices
  • Impact on Environment
  • Future of GMO
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