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QI agree it is caused by something else. Have you considered the oxidation of methane to the very heavy formaldehyde gas. See the following:http://www.dreamofpassamaquoddy.com/formaldahyde.htm

I agree it is caused by something else. Have you considered the oxidation of methane to the very heavy formaldehyde gas. See the following: http://www.dreamofpassamaquoddy.com/formaldahyde.htm

QCan you mix traits from animals to humans?Therefore could you potentially take the strength of a lion and implant it within the human genetic form?We know you can move a muscle while both are developed and it can create uncertainty due to the possible rej

Can you mix traits from animals to humans? Therefore could you potentially take the strength of a lion and implant it within the human genetic form? We know you can move a muscle while both are developed and it can create uncertainty due to the possible rejection. And it's much more likely to accept if it is to develop as an embryo. So could traits be transferred?

QWho can create a gmo for me? I'm wanting certain matching genes to be added to a strain of watermelon and a strain of coconut. Who can do this for me?

Who can create a gmo for me? I'm wanting certain matching genes to be added to a strain of watermelon and a strain of coconut. Who can do this for me?

AExpert Answer

While there might be some institutions with the capability to make these transgenic watermelon and coconut plants for you, that does not mean that you would be able to actually plant them out. First, the institution would need to have a Biological Use Authorization to work with recombinant DNA to make the vectors to transfer the genes. Then they would need to be able to do the tissue culture required to transfer the genes and regenerate whole plants again, which can sometimes be difficult. Then a number of these plants (between 20 and 100) might need to be grown to identify ones that have successfully incorporated the genes and express the desired trait. This would have to done in a greenhouse with proper containment to prevent the plants (or any of their parts, e.g., pollen) from the outdoor environment. Generally, you would grow them there for a generation or two to be sure that the trait is stable, but this would clearly be a problem for coconut. If you then wanted to grow them outside, you would need additional permits from the USDA, an isolated field, and the ability to monitor the field for two more years afterwards to be sure that there are no volunteer plants (at least this would be easy for coconut). Then, if you wanted to sell or distribute these plants, you would need to submit an application to the USDA-APHIS for review to allow them to decide whether there is any risk of the plants becoming plant pests due to the gene you added and to the FDA to be sure that they would be safe to eat. This review can take anywhere from a few years up to a decade or more, based on recent cases, and could cost a minimum of $1-10 million up to much more to generate the required data, depending on what the genes are and whether you also want to send the plants to or sell them in other countries.

 

In short, while the technology to do what you ask is actually pretty easy to accomplish these days inside a research setting, the regulatory requirements that must be met in order to create, characterize, deregulate and finally release such plants to the environment make it virtually impossible to do without very deep pockets and a lot of time. 

QThis is a test question from agencyQ. We're troubleshooting the New Question Admin Notification email system

This is a test question from agencyQ. We're troubleshooting the New Question Admin Notification email system

QSo whats a genetic engineer always do?did they just sit inside the lab all day doing research everyday?

So whats a genetic engineer always do? did they just sit inside the lab all day doing research everyday?

AExpert Answer

I’m a genetic engineer. I’ve spent 30 years participating as a member of teams of genetic engineers, and I love your question. Most of us do indeed spend a lot of time inside the lab, but we’re not always sitting. Sometimes we dance!
 
Genetic engineering starts with an idea for a way to solve a problem, so I guess it starts with an understanding of the problems. In agriculture, for example, that means spending time to understand what’s happening on farms and what challenges farmers need solved.
 
Once we’ve identified the problems, we brainstorm solutions. This is a favorite part of my job, standing in front of a white board with a few fellow scientists and exploring possible solutions. What gene should we use? How should we engineer it? 
 
Once we’ve come up with some ideas about how to address the problem, then it’s time to get in the lab. During this phase, we spend the bulk of our time in the lab, cloning pieces of DNA, engineering genes, doing experiments with the genes in cells or in plants, getting the results, thinking about what the results mean, and adjusting our strategy accordingly… then doing it all again. Depending on the project, this can last weeks, months, or years. This almost always is done as part of a team of other genetic engineers, each one working on a part of the project, always communicating with each other, always coordinating their work. This means that we have to spend time in meetings, reviewing progress and planning the next steps.
 
So, genetic engineering does indeed involve a lot of time in the lab doing experiments, but a major shift in the last couple of decades involves the growth of big data and the emergence of data science. In fact, we’re increasingly doing our experiments “in silico,” on the computer, i.e. testing hypotheses by analyzing existing data, without setting foot in the lab. Large genetic engineering projects typically have several data scientists who are an important part of the team.
 
We’re constantly learning. The science of biotechnology advances quickly, so we have to spend time keeping up with the latest advances, reading the scientific journals, attending conferences, etc. I just came back, for example, from a conference on gene editing where I learned about the latest advances in that technology, so that I can think about how to use them to solve problems.
 
Finally, communicating about our genetic engineering, with colleagues and with the wider world, is just as important as doing it. Good genetic engineers realize that the best science in the world doesn’t matter if people don’t find it beneficial, and that means communicating our science in a way others can understand. So, we spend a lot of time talking with others, writing about what we do, engaging on social media, and occasionally answering questions on GMO Answers.
 
The best way to learn what a genetic engineer does is to meet one in-person and ask them to show you. Genetic engineers are just like everyone else. Some of us are outgoing. Some are more reserved. Most of us, however, are excited about our work and would be happy to show you what we do. Find your nearest genetic engineer, at a university or a company, and ask them to show you around. Many cities have community or DIY labs where anyone can learn and do the basics of genetic engineering. Another great website to get to know a scientist and have a conversation is Skype a Scientist; this is especially helpful if you’re able to host a classroom Q&A session. 
 
Thanks for your question. If you ever get a chance to visit a genetic engineering lab, I hope they show you some dance moves there.

AExpert Answer

Other than research, our work starts at the design of a plasmid vector that contains a gene cassette that we want to introduce in a plant genome. Once the plasmid vector design is completed, it is synthesized by bringing together several DNA components together thru a bio-chemical reaction. When the plasmid vector is made, the several components are verified by restriction endonuclease digestion reactions and/or thru DNA sequencing. After this verification is completed, the plasmid vector is transformed into an Agrobacterium strain that we use as a tool to move the gene cassette(s) in the plasmid vector into the plant nucleus. Alternatively the plasmid DNA could be made and purified in large quantities for transformation experiments using gene gun bombardment. Next step is plant cell transformation for which we prepare large amounts of plant cells thru tissue culture and either inoculate them with the Agrobacterium containing the new gene cassette or bombard the cells using a gene gun to deliver the gene cassette. Several rounds of tissue cultures are then completed to raise transgenic plants that will contain the new gene cassette that we introduced. After raising the transgenic plants, tests such as PCR, ELISA, Southern blot etc. are performed to further confirm the presence and functionality of the newly introduced gene cassette in the transgenic plants. These transgenic plants are then transferred to a green house and cared for until they set seeds. The seeds of the transgenic plants are then handed over to plant breeders for further analysis in greenhouse/field. That’s in a nutshell what a genetic engineer would do typically at work.          

 

Besides, genetic engineers like myself have other activities like a normal office going employee. We have hobbies like others do. My hobbies are photography, gardening and cooking. In spring and summer after work, I tend to my garden and cater the needs of birds in my backyard. I grew zucchini, okra, tomato, string beans, bitter melon, cucumber, radish and sunflower in my yard this season. I try new recipes with these veggies. While cooking, I setup my camera in the porch and shoot some birds in action. Please visit my Facebook page for some of these recipes and pictures. Of course while I do these activities, my mind always hovers around biotechnology and learning about what’s new in the field, and how I could utilize such novel ideas in my research.

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