QWho created GMOs?

Who created GMOs?

AExpert Answer

The first use of recombinant DNA technology, was created by Cohen and Boyer in 1972 with E.coli in 1972 and this article explains this advancement in biotechnology in greater detail. Here is an excerpt:

“Their experiments dramatically demonstrated the potential impact of DNA recombinant engineering on medicine and pharmacology, industry and agriculture.”

 

Recombinant insulin was the first commercial product derived from genetic engineering techniques created in 1976 by the Genetech Company. Virtually all diabetics today use this type of insulin because of its advantages to the animal-derived insulin used before this technology. 

 

In the early 1980s there were many simultaneous plant modification efforts initiated. Mary-Dell Chilton, known as “the mother of plant genetic modification,” led a team at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and successfully used Agrobacterium to insert a gene into tobacco plants. Robert Fraley, now the Chief Technology Officer at Monsanto but back then a PhD scientist at Monsanto, shared a similar achievement, using Agrobacterium to transport new genes into petunias. A third team at Ghent University in Belgium, led by scientists Jeff Schell and Marc Van Montagu, also succeeded in this area with Agrobacterium. These efforts in scientific research and development resulted in the world’s first genetically engineered plants.

 

Then there is the more familiar FlavrSavr tomato, created by Calgene and approved as the first GMO whole food in 1994. The tomato fruit enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) dissolves cell-wall pectin which is key to fruit ripening. The idea was to suppress PG accumulation in ripening tomatoes by introducing a reverse-orientation copy of the gene, an “antisense” copy designed to extend shelf life and storage. While demand for the tomato was high and remained high, profitability was limited. This tomato is no longer on the market.

 

The first genetically engineered product for human consumption, chymosin, was approved by FDA in 1999, which is added to milk during cheese making. This is also the preferred method as of today and prior to biotech solutions, these enzymes were extracted from the stomachs of calves. Biotech has enabled production that help cheese-makers to deliver the flavors and consistency that they — and we — are looking for, and eliminated the need to harvest this from calves.

 

This video by CropLife America illustrates the journey through the last 80 years of modern agriculture highlighting innovations such as the use of biotechnology in agriculture.

Posted on January 3, 2018
GMO is a general term that is used to describe a genetic variation that has occurred, which not only happens in nature, but humans have been doing this through selective breeding for over thousands of years. When people refer to Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), they are referring to precision plant breeding using genetic engineering. It allows plant breeders to take a desirable trait (like resistance to drought, insects, weeds, and disease) from one... Read More
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Posted on September 25, 2017
Technically, you can mix traits among species, which is how transgenic work is done. The first transgenic mouse was introduced with the human growth hormone gene, and by overexpressing the growth hormone, the mouse grew bigger, but not the same as human size. This is more like the function of the gene. Whether it can mix the physical features between species will be different, but something like a chimera study that mixes animals of two strains might carry physical features of both. However,... Read More
Posted on November 28, 2017
There are currently no breeding techniques used to create genetic variations of hair textures. If a person wishes to change their hair texture in any way, they are currently limited to the available hair care products sold for those purposes.   However, new gene editing techniques are continued to be developed for different beneficial purposes and what you are referring to is the possibility of editing genes in humans. Some of the areas to apply gene editing, particularly in humans, are... Read More
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