QWhen were GMOs createdinvented?

When were GMOs createdinvented?

AExpert Answer

The first use of recombinant DNA technology, was created by Cohen and Boyer in 1972 with E.coli in 1972 and this article explains this advancement in biotechnology in greater detail. Here is an excerpt:

“Their experiments dramatically demonstrated the potential impact of DNA recombinant engineering on medicine and pharmacology, industry and agriculture.”

 

Recombinant insulin was the first commercial product derived from genetic engineering techniques created in 1976 by the Genetech Company. Virtually all diabetics today use this type of insulin because of its advantages to the animal-derived insulin used before this technology. 

 

In the early 1980s there were many simultaneous plant modification efforts initiated. Mary-Dell Chilton, known as “the mother of plant genetic modification,” led a team in 1982 at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri, and successfully used Agrobacterium to insert a gene into tobacco plants. Robert Fraley, now the Chief Technology Officer at Monsanto but back then a PhD scientist at Monsanto, shared a similar achievement, using Agrobacterium to transport new genes into petunias. A third team at Ghent University in Belgium, led by scientists Jeff Schell and Marc Van Montagu, also succeeded in this area with Agrobacterium. These efforts in scientific research and development resulted in the world’s first genetically engineered plants.

 

Then there is the more familiar FlavrSavr tomato, created by Calgene and approved as the first GMO whole food in 1994. The tomato fruit enzyme polygalacturonase (PG) dissolves cell-wall pectin which is key to fruit ripening. The idea was to suppress PG accumulation in ripening tomatoes by introducing a reverse-orientation copy of the gene, an “antisense” copy designed to extend shelf life and storage. While demand for the tomato was high and remained high, profitability was limited. This tomato is no longer on the market.

 

The first genetically engineered product for human consumption, chymosin, was approved by FDA in 1999, which is added to milk during cheese making. This is also the preferred method as of today and prior to biotech solutions, these enzymes were extracted from the stomachs of calves. Biotech has enabled production that help cheese-makers to deliver the flavors and consistency that they — and we — are looking for, and eliminated the need to harvest this from calves.

 

This video by CropLife America illustrates the journey through the last 80 years of modern agriculture highlighting innovations such as the use of biotechnology in agriculture.

Posted on June 13, 2018
The good news is that no genetically modified food has animal genes in it. There are currently only 10 crops that are developed with GM technology, they are - alfalfa, apples, canola, corn (field and sweet), cotton, papaya, potatoes, soybeans, squash and sugar beets. Alfalfa and feed corn are often fed to animals but all studies of dairy, eggs and milk from these animals has never found any indication of the GM feed, in other words, the animal digests that crop in the same manner as any other... Read More
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Posted on May 28, 2018
We have answered similar questions about GMOs being “good” or “bad.” This response addresses the positives and benefits that GMOs offer. A snippet is included below: “GMOs are considered an important tool in addressing complex issues around the globe. From environmental sustainability to nutritional benefits, we’ve outlined many of the important ways GMOs can provided benefits to farmers, consumers and the environment in this response. Additionally,... Read More
Posted on June 25, 2018
Thank you for your question and interest, it is great you are a supporter of sciences. The traditional home gardening seed outlets do not sell/market/offer GMO crop seeds, one would have to work through a grower seed dealer/distributor, which would require appropriate licensing and a contract agreement. So anyone can purchase GM seed varieties – it simply requires going through a farm supply company, getting the required licensing and signing a contract. But typical gardener retail... Read More