I have worked in the field of ecotoxicology for over 25 years. I grew up along the shores of Lake Michigan and developed a passion for studying aquatic animals, which led me to M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in aquatic toxicology. After a NIH Post-Doctoral Fellowship in toxicology at Pennsylvania State University I joined Monsanto. At Monsanto I have worked as an ecotoxicologist supporting the chemical and biotech crop protection portfolios within the Regulatory Sciences
Steven L. Levine, Ph.D.
From this Expert
Posted On: Wednesday, 11/06/2013 4:07 pm
Answered By: Steven L. Levine, Ph.D., Global Lead- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Monsanto, Friday, 7/25/2014 1:32 pm
A: Earthworms, along with other soil macroorganisms, provide essential ecosystem services. In the most important book written on earthworms in the last 100 years, Edwards and Bohlen (Biology and Ecology of Earthworms, 1996) examined the potential impact of many agricultural products on earthworms. The authors rank the toxicity of active ingredients to earthworms using a scale of 0 (relatively nontoxic) to 3 (extremely toxic). Glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup formulations, is ranked 0... Continue Reading
Q: I've heard that glyphosate causes development abnormalities in frogs. What's the truth and do you have scientific references to support this?
Posted On: Monday, 8/05/2013 1:47 pm
Answered By: Steven L. Levine, Ph.D., Global Lead- Ecotoxicology and Environmental Risk Assessment, Monsanto, Tuesday, 1/14/2014 9:34 pm
A: There are data that suggest this, but the simple fact is that these studies utilized conditions that are not relevant to real-world exposures. These studies were conducted either using exposure routes (e.g. injection or cell culture) not relevant for environmental exposure or using exposure concentrations or durations that greatly exceed worst-case environmental exposures, and environmental fate has not been included in the exposure regimen. Consequently, these types of studies must be... Continue Reading
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